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SODIUM NITRITE

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Post Date : May 24
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Mumbai
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Maharashtra India
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Specifications

SODIUM NITRITE
Chemical Formula: NaNO2

SODIUM NITRITE

Chemical Formula: NaNO2

Synonyms

Nitrous acid sodium salt

Description

White or yellowish powder.

Uses

Sodium nitrite is used to fix the colors in preserved fish and meats. It is also important (along with sodium chloride) in controlling the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism. Lunch meats, hams, sausages, hot dogs and bacon are usually preserved this way.

In medicines, it is a vasodilator, intestinal relaxant, bronchodilator, and an antidote to cyanide poisoning, and hydrogen sulfide poisoning.

Sodium nitrite is produced in the human body by the action of saliva on sodium nitrate, and is important in controlling bacteria in the stomach, to prevent gastroenteritis. The body produces more sodium nitrite than is consumed in food.

Sodium nitrite can react with proteins in the stomach or during cooking (especially in high heat, such as frying bacon) to form carcinogenic N-nitrosamines. To prevent this, ascorbic acid or erythorbic acid are now added to the cured meat.

During the curing process, some of the nitrites are converted to nitric oxide. This combines with the myoglobin proteins in the muscle of the meat to form the deep red nitric oxide myoglobin, which turns bright pink during the smoking process. This is why ham is pink.

Nitrites prevent foods from getting rancid. Besides the taste issues, nitrites prevent the formation of toxic maldonadehyde, which is formed as foods get rancid.

Sodium nitrite is a chemical compound which is used principally as an additive in meats and other foods. It has properties that preserve color and freshness, especially in processed meats. In its pure state, it is a white or yellowish powder, with a texture somewhat like salt. It is considered a salt in the chemical sense, meaning that it is composed of positively charged ions of a metal -- sodiumsodiumsodium -- and negatively charged non-metal ions -- nitritenitritenitrite.

There are at least three purposes accomplished by the addition of sodium nitrite to certain food products. The first is the preservation of color. Sodium nitrite preserves the red color of meats and some types of fish so that they remain red even if they are cooked while being processed.

Another purpose is to inhibit the growth of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. This species of microorganism is highly dangerous when it is present in food products, because it produces a neurotoxin which causes a set of symptoms in humans known as botulism. These symptoms include muscular paralysis, which can lead to respiratory failure and death.

Sodium nitrite, because of how it is used in the process of curing meats, also maintains freshness overall by slowing the development of rancid flavors or odors in the food it is used to treat. It also has other applications outside of food preparation. In medicine, proper doses of sodium nitrite can function as a bronchodilator, an intestinal relaxant, and even as an antidote to some poisons such as cyanide and hydrogen sulfide. It has also been used to dilate blood vessels and to treat certain lung disorders in infants.

As with any other chemical preservative, sodium nitrite has come under considerable scrutiny as its safety has been questioned. Certain laboratory studies have found links between large amounts of sodium nitrite consumption and a higher incidence of certain cancers. It has also been linked to migraine headaches in those who have a history of suffering from them. However, this chemical is also produced by our own bodies, and some say we make more of it than we consume. This is an important point to consider, since it plays a vital role in maintaining stomach health, specifically controlling the growth of bacteria that could otherwise lead to gastroenteritis.

The carcinogenic tendencies of sodium nitrite can be controlled or prevented by the addition of vitamin C to cured meats. Even so, some recommend that children and women who are pregnant or nursing should avoid any unnecessary intake of sodium nitrite. Like many controversial chemicals, it has not been conclusively proven to be a health hazard for humans in the amounts people are usually exposed to.

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Sodium Hydroxide

Sodium Hydroxide

Sodium Hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye and caustic soda, is a caustic metallic base.

Sodium Hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye and caustic soda, is a caustic metallic base.

 Sodium hydroxide forms a strong alkaline solution when dissolved in a solvent such as water. However, only the hydroxide ion is basic. It is used in many industries, mostly as a strong chemical base in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents and as a drain cleaner. Sodium hydroxide is a common base in chemical laboratories.

 Pure sodium hydroxide is a white solid; available in pellets, flakes, granules and as a 50% saturated solution. It is hygroscopic and readily absorbs water from the air, so it should be stored in an airtight container. It is very soluble in water with liberation of heat. It also dissolves in ethanol and methanol, though it exhibits lower solubility in these solvents than potassium hydroxide. It is insoluble in ether and other non-polar solvents. A sodium hydroxide solution will leave a yellow stain on fabric and paper

Application :

 Used in Resin Regeneration ,Dyes ,Viscose Rayon ,Zeolite ,Sodium Polyphosphate , Sodium Silicate ,Sodium Sulphite ,Monosodium Glutamate ,Refinery ,Soap, Detergent , Pulp & Papar.

Used in industric process such as:

* Pulp & paper  * Alumina

* Textiles           * Soaps & Detergents

* Dyes & Dyestuffs       * Pharmaceuticals

* Water treatment          

Product Name   Sodium Hydroxide, anhydrous  

CAS  #  1310-73-2         

Formula            NaOH  

Molecular Weight           40.01   

Applications

•           Digestion of wood and bagasse for manufacture of pulp and paper.

•           Digestion of wood for manufacture of viscose staple fibre, viscose filament yarn and rayon tyre cord.

•           Manufacture of soaps and detergents.

•           Digestion of aluminium ore to make alumina as an intermediate in the production of aluminium.

•           Dleaching & processing of cotton textiles.

•           Regeneration of ion-exchangere sins in water treatment plants.

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SODIUM HYDROSULPHITE

SODIUM HYDROSULPHITE

SODIUM HYDROSULPHITE

Sodium hydrosulphite is a free-flowing, dry, white material available in a variety of grades, each with a different level of sod

SODIUM HYDROSULPHITE

Sodium hydrosulphite is a free-flowing, dry, white material available in a variety of grades, each with a different level of sodium dithionite. Sodium hydrosulfite finds applications as a reducing agent by chemically reducing other components by donating an electron or electrons, sulfonating agent by adding sulfur to another chemical compound, and as a cation source for textile, pulp and paper, leather, foods and beverages, polymers, chemical processing, water treatment, gas purification and environmental improvement.

Sodium hydrosulfite is prepared by the reaction of sodium bisulfite with zinc, or by the action of sulfur dioxide on sodium amalgam. Sodium hydrosulphite is the common commercial name for products containing sodium dithionite, Na2S2O4, as the active ingredient.

Sodium dithionite is a powerful, inexpensive, safe and readily available reducing agent. It has been used for more than 70 years in the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds, diazonium salts, a variety of pyridinium compounds, some complex oximes and other nitrogen-containing functional groups.

Sodium dithionite is primarily used as reducing agent for the reduction of vat dyes and sulfur containing dyes. The purpose of this reduction reaction is to form the leuco components of the mentioned dyes, which are soluble in water and have a great affinity for the textile fabric. Sodium dithionite is also used to optimise the colour fastness, which can be achieved by a reductive decomposition of the excess of dye stuff that is adsorbed at the surface of the textile (especially used for polyester fibres). Other applications of sodium dithionite as reducing agent can be found in the removal of pigments on textile that has been dyed in a wrong way and in the reduction of residual hydrogen peroxide (after bleaching) as a pre-treatment for the dye process with reactive dyes.

Besides its use as reducing agent, sodium dithionite is also used as a bleaching agent in reductive bleaching processes. Examples are bleaching of mechanical paper pulp and the bleaching of cotton and wool. It especially reduces carbonyl and alcohol functional groups, which are responsible for the colour of the textile fabric. Unfortunately these processes are not 100 % effective. Therefore a reductive bleaching process is often preceded by an oxidative one (with hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite or sodium chlorite).

Sodium dithionite is relatively unstable and tends to react with oxygen. This means that in textile processes where sodium dithionite is involved it is common practice to use a large excess of sodium dithionite to be sure that the concerned treatment is quantitative. Because sodium dithionite itself and its reaction products (sulphite and sulphate) are important pollutants, highly polluted waste water is obtained, containing no dissolved oxygen. A method to measure the concentration of sodium dithionite on line could result in a more efficient use of sodium dithionite and less waste. Measurement and control of the concentration of sodium dithionite also would have a positive influence on the quality of the textile fabric.

Sodium dithionite is a powerful reducing agent, and when applied to an iron-fouled resin bed, will reduce any ferric iron present to the soluble ferrous form. The bed can be freed from iron during a normal aqueous cycle. Sodium dithionite will decompose under the influence of heat or moisture. For this reason, the chemical should be kept in sealed watertight containers and stored in a cool, dry place. This way the material can be stored over a prolonged period with negligible loss in activity. Care should be exercised in handling sodium dithionite since, on contact with water, it decomposes quite rapidly, forming gases that can ignite spontaneously.

For this reason, sodium hydrosulfite or sodium dithionite is classified as a flammable solid and is shipped under the appropriate caution label. Any material that is spilled should be promptly cleaned up and the site washed with plenty of water. Partially used containers represent a fire hazard.

Synonyms: sodium dithionite, sodium hydrosulphite, sodium sulphoxylate

Molecular formula: Na2S2O4

CAS No: 7775-14-6

Major Applications :

Textile   Bleaching, Dyeing, Printing & Stripping of Vat dyes.Reduction Clearance of disperse Printed Textiles.

Bleaching Aid    Ground Wood Pulp, Soap, Sugar, Molasses,Glue Kaolin (Clay).

Reducing Agent            Reduction of Metal lons to Metals, Disulphide linkage in wool hair, Nitrogen compounds.

Pharmaceuticals            Chemical reaction, De-Coloring final product.

Polymer            Oxygen Scavinging agent

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